Bibliography Summaries

“Area Map of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona – Arizona Mapsite.” Arizona Maps – Arizona Mapsite City Maps. (accessed February 8, 2012).

This source is a map of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument as well as a little bit of the surrounding area.  It shows roads in and out of the monument as well as the US-Mexican border.


Banks, Leo. “Border Fence Benefits the Environment.” The Daily Caller. (accessed February 15, 2012).

This source is about, as the title suggests,  how a fence along the border will benefit the environment of the Sonoran desert located within Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  He goes on to state that this will in no way completely  heal the environment, but it’s a start, and every little bit helps.


Bennett, Peter S., Michael R. Kunzmann, and Ariz Tucson. A history of the Quitobaquito Resource Management Area, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Tucson, Ariz.: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, 1989.

This source came from a publication and the only information I have is the title page and the table of contents.  From this information we can deduct that this is a report about the Quitobaquito Resource Management Area, along with Organ Pipe Cactus national Monument.  It looks like from the table of contents that this report deals heavily with the history of the area, particularly that of the human inhabitants of the area.


Bethany Walder, “Immigration,Wildlife, and the Wall,”  Wildlands CPR, (December 4, 2008), (accessed January 30, 2012).

Walder writes about a trip which she spent in Organ Pipe and her experiences there.  Most of the article describes the downfalls of The Secure Fence Act.  The author describes how the DHS Secretary has been allowed to ignore environmental laws in order to build this wall and the negative consequences which come along with that to the wildlife and plant life.  Author believes that the environmental laws need to be adhered to more seriously or else the endangered species of this region will become extinct.

Bock, Carl E., and Jane H. Bock. Sonoita Plain: views from a Southwestern grassland. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2005.

This source seems to be a picture book filled with pictures from the desert and grasslands of the Sonoran desert near and around Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  I would imagine that along with the pictures there are blurbs about each picture.  What’s happening in the picture, some background and so on.


Bonnie Eggle. “The murder of Kris Eggle: a remembrance from his mother.” Immigrations Human Cost. (accessed January 31, 2012).

This letter is a call to action from Bonnie Eggle (the mother of Kris Eggle). Kris Eggle was a Park Ranger who was killed in Organ Pipe Cactus National Park by a drug smuggler. Bonnie Eggle describes the deteriorating condition of the border, and the lack of resources currently afforded to those trying to enforce the border in the park. This letter is a part of her campaign to get the government to create vehicle barriers on the border, as well as deploy more law enforcement officers so that the park rangers are not required to do things that they were not trained to do.


Brunet-Jailly, Emmanuel. Borderlands: Comparing Border Security in North America and Europe. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2007.

Since 9/11 countries in Europe and North America alike have spent a lot of time and money investing in enhanced border security in their respective countries. Governments are now confronted with managing secure borders, a policy objective that in this era of increased free trade and globalization must compete with intense cross-border flows of people and goods.  This book shows the gap between necessary security and the unique culture of borderlands.


Burnett, John. “Security Worries Overshadow U.S.-Mexico Park Plan”. National Public Radio.

Big Bend National Park was established in 1944 in West Texas.  President Roosevelt wrote to President Manuel Avila Camacho of Mexico, “I do not believe this undertaking in the Big Bend will be complete until the entire park area … on both sides of the Rio Grande, forms one great international park.”  However since then, issues with border security have complicated the completion of this international park.  The hope is to model a different international park, the Glacier-Waterton park between the Unided States and Canada.

Defenders of Wildlife. Security Without Walls: The Organ Pipe Experience. DOI/Office of Law Enforcement and Security, 2005.

This source talks directly about the immigration problem happening on the border especially within the boundaries of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  The article continues on discussing how since the construction of the vehicle barrier along the border in ORPI vehicle traffic has fallen by 525 percent.


Di Silvestro, Roger. “No Safe Refuge.” National Wildlife 45 (December 2006/January 2007): 48-  51.

The article discusses how there is large problem occurring in Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, and Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge. The problem is the illegal immigrant and drug smugglers who are disrupting the wildlife protected in these refuges. The defense against these illegal activities is also taking a toll on the land. Even some of the endangered species are being affected.


Faler, Brian. “Assaults Increase On Parks Workers; Incidents with Rangers Rise 900 Percent.” Washington Post, August 30, 2002.

The article describes startling new statistics on rising national park worker assault, compiled by the non-profit group Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER). The common circumstances under which assault is typically encountered are reported as varied. Some causes are more arbitrary, such as drunken belligerency or poaching, while others represent more systemic problems, such as drug trafficking and illegal immigration, especially in the Southwest. The viewpoints on the causes of the rise in violent assault are also varied among different agencies. Some question the accuracy of PEER’s calculations; others cite the substantial increase in reports to the Justice Department as required by the 1996 Anti-Terrorism Act; and another claims to have a different definition of “violent assault” than PEER’s.


Fialka, John J. “In the Wild: A Ranger’s Death Shows the New Hazards of a Venerable Job.” Wall Street Journal, January 22, 2003.

This article is premised with the story of gunned-down Kris Eggle and argues that many rangers’ jobs entail more law enforcement requirements and danger than ever due to drastically rising crime rates, particularly in the borderland park ORPI. The park is penetrated by up to 1000 entrants each night and the effects on the park environment itself are also discussed including: destruction of delicate plant species and environment, emigration of certain wildlife, and mounting garbage. The writer largely casts the rangers in a heroic light, yet also suggests that their efforts at stopping drug smugglers may inadvertently increase drug violence, as the marijuana cartels in Mexico notoriously shed blood when debts go unpaid.


“Final Spending Bill Shortchanges Parks.” National Parks 78 (Winter 2004): 15. 78.1 (2004): 15. Academic Search Premier. (accessed September 27, 2010).

This article in the National Parks Journal details the effects of the Department of the Interior’s (DI) final 2004 spending bill on national parks across the country. National parks were appropriated a mere 3.5% increase in appropriations, despite the NPCA’s request for at least triple that figure to combat severe shortages and avoid reducing staff. The bill also encourages privatization of park services and limits the DI to spending no more than $2.5 million in studies that assess the potential consequences. The bill is also criticized on the grounds that it does not include any park-protective language that has traditionally been included to limit road construction and related commercial activities in protected areas. An additional $900,000 was appropriated to ORPI to boost visitation and resource protection.


Fish, Larry. “Creating a Monument in the Arizona Desert.” The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 9, 2001.

In his article, “Creating a Monument in the Arizona Desert,” Larry Fish explores the purpose and longevity of National Monuments—specifically Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  While ORPI—like many other national monuments created by Presidential mandate—comes under scrutiny for its necessity, it remains a vital tract of the Sonoran Desert serving the communities of Southern Arizona.  Its lack of development creates several desirable qualities such as: seclusion, preservation, and ecological integrity in an increasingly developed world; however, it also causes problems such as funding deficiencies, ecosystem degradation, and programmatic ambiguity.  The first step in preserving the park, and thereby solving the aforementioned issues, will be to define the overall purpose and management of the monument.


Fred Elbel. “Desert Invasion – U.S.” Desert Invasion. (accessed January 31, 2012).

This website describes the lasting effects that illegal immigrants and drug smugglers have on the environment on the U.S.-Mexico border. It accuses the government of doing very little in the way of stopping people from crossing the border illegally. Because of this, some of the natural environment has been destroyed beyond repair. The website also cites the death of Kris Eggle as a byproduct of the lacking border control.

Gimblett, Randy and Christopher Sharp. “An Attack on the Border.” University of Arizona School of Natural Resources and the Environment.

The piece written by Sharp and Gimblett evaluates the current status of ORPI with regard to contemporary threats and management responses, and focusing on the environmental health of the monument.  The conflicting influences of the US Border Patrol and National Parks system create problems in managing the area as an ecological preserve as well as a national border; problems that result in an escalating level of environmental degradation from both sides of the border.  The authors tracked destruction of the park and concluded that if a decision regarding cultural treatment of the park isn’t made soon, the ecology of the region may not be able to recover.


Guillot, Craig.  “U.S.-Mexico Barrier Spurring More Illegal Foot Traffic, Enviro Damage.”  National Geographic News (accessed Sept 29, 2010).

Guillot’s article discusses the impact of a vehicular impediment erected along the US-Mexico border, focusing on the fact that although it has reduced illicit automobile activity, it led to an increase in foot traffic and different consequences for the monument.  Admittedly, automobile traffic left noticeable paths of destruction in the physical landscape, and by creating new roads in the desert, caused flooding patterns to change.  However, the shift to an increase in pedestrian traffic poses problems in the form of waste deposition as well as damage to the plant life within the park.


Harman, Danna. “Illegal migrants persist despite fences, danger; Mexicans try many routes to get into USA.” USA Today, March 30, 2006.

In this article Danna Harman interviews immigrants that migrated over the border through various entry points that are used by several immigrants. The article stated that 1.2 million immigrants were captured and sent back to Mexico. Immigrants not only come from Mexico but from various parts of Central and South America.


Harman, Danna. “South of the border, fence is no deterrent.”  The Christian Science Monitor.  March 29, 2006.

This article is identical to the article written by Harman for USA Today. It follows the lives of an immigrant risking his life to make a living in “El Norte”. The article contains several facts and figures about border life and making the great escape into freedom.

Hawley, Chris.  “Drug smugglers curtail scientists’ work.”  USA Today, December 27, 2007.

Not only is there border and law enforcement agents but there is also scientists that work along the border that do research on the animals that call the desert their home. Hawley discusses the many issues that scientists have to deal with while working along the border. Some scientists carry around guns to protect themselves from hostile immigrants and one botanist described how the gas in boats and cars would be gone because several would siphon the gas in order to get across the border. The article paints the picture showing us how hostile immigrants and everyone who works along the border can be.


“Interior and Homeland Security Collaborate on Border Protection, Resource Conservation along US/Mexico Border.” U.S. Department of the Interior. (accessed February 15, 2012).

This source discusses how in March of 2010 Seceratry of the Interior Ken Salazar met with the employees of the Department of the Interior and Department of Homeland Security to discuss the process of the control of the border.  This is an effort in an ongoing battle to fix the nation’s broken immigration system.


Kenworthy, Tom. “New Outlaws Plague Arizona Desert Refuges.” USA Today, August 22, 2006.

Increased border security in places such as San Diego and El Paso has pushed immigrants and drug smugglers into the desert areas in southern Arizona.  As a result the National Park Service at Organ Pipe is forced to spend about 75% of their time on border issues.  An estimated 8,000 smugglers and illegal immigrants were detained by Park Rangers in Organ Pipe along with 8 tons of marijuana in 2005 alone.  Furthermore, the increased traffic in the area is severely damaging the fragile environment and disrupting the migration patterns of the pronghorn antelope.


Malone, John. Open Letter, Aug. 9, 2002. “Statement by Border Park Ranger John Malone on Killing of Ranger Kris Eggle in Organ Pipe National Monument on August 9, 2002.”

This source is an open letter from Border Patrol Agent John Malone regarding the incident involving the killing of NPS Ranger Kris Eggle.  The letter details the story as John Malone experienced it.  He starts off describing what he was doing when the calls came over the radio that something was going on.  He describes what he overheard on the radio.  Malone then describes the situation as he arrived on the scene, and what ended up being Kris Eggle’s final moments.  After this he spends some time explaining his relationship with Eggle and how Eggle’s job began at Organ Pipe.  At the close of the letter Malone states his reasons for writing it.  He says it was primarily to inform people of the event as he saw it and to highlight things that are wrong with the system in place, which may have led to the tragedy.


Mark K. Matthews. “Arizona Lashes Out at Illegal Immigration.” Stateline, Aug. 31st, 2005, (accessed Jan. 2012).

This article is about the changes that have come to Arizona in the recent past, including increased immigration and legislative crackdown on immigration.  The first part of the article mostly deals with facts and figures having to do with immigration, to show its effect on the state of Arizona.  Following this is a few paragraphs about how the state has previously tried to deal with illegal immigration.  The discussion then moves into a breakdown of the state’s controversial new proposition 200 which has sweeping consequences for illegal immigrants and how they can get (or not get) social services.  The article includes some statements about the new laws by several lawmakers, residents, and migrants of both ethnicities.


McCombs, Brady. “6 More Bodies Found in Desert; Fiscal-year Total: 164.” Arizona Daily Star, July 30, 2009, (accessed Jan. 2012).

This article is about recent deaths along the Arizona/Mexico border.  Though primarily about the 6 recent deaths as suggested by the title, the article does also contain some early references to yearly figures.  The article cites very hot temperatures during July as the most likely reason for the deaths.  Two of the six deaths were reported to have taken place in Organ Pipe and the search for bodies was conducted there.  Note that most of the bodies were only found because someone traveling with the deceased notified border patrol agents.  The last part of the article talks about the larger context of yearly figures and how this month compares to previous Julys and yearly death rates.


McNamee, Gregory, “Broken Borders: At Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument,” Wildlife Suffers Advocacy, (accessed September 27, 2010).

This article is from the Britannica encyclopedia for the advocacy for animals and addresses three animals in particular that live in Organ Pipe and major habitat concerns that have arisen as a result of the construction of the border fence.  The three animals that were discussed within the article were the kangaroo rat, jaguars, and pronghorn.  While the border has posed lesser problems for the kangaroo rat, it has stopped the Sonoran pronghorn population from freely mixing with other populations and has completely separated the Mexican and Arizona tribes.  Furthermore, while the jaguar is rare in the area there has been an increase in sightings since 1996 offering hope that it may once again return if its habitat can be protected.  Increased traffic and hostile conditions along the border coupled with the Mexican government’s inability to subdue these concerns are believed to be the cause for the migration of the jaguars north.  Unfortunately, with the construction of a border it has cut off the avenue of escape for species like the jaguars, and pronghorn and brought about the potential calamity of these animals and other border-crossing creatures.


Olson, Martha Stevenson. “The Lure of a Lush Desert-New York Times” NY Times Advertisement. (accessed February 8, 2012)

In this article the author is writing about how she is of two minds about the desert. She appreciates its quirky, independent, prickly beauty, and the minimalist survival that occurs there.  But on the other hand the comfort factor is very low.  She continues discussing the desert and how difficult survival there truly is.


“Organ Pipe Cactus.” Blueplantbiomes. Accessed September 28, 2010

The purpose of this document is to give the reader a general understanding of the Organ Pipe Cactus.  The Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi), grows only in the Sonoran Desert.  “It is found from southwestern Arizona south to Sonora, Sinaloa and Baja California in Mexico” (pg. 1).  One of he purposes of Organ Pipe National Monument is to protect the cacti in their native habitat.  “The organ pipe cactus gets its name from the many slender, curving vertical stems which resemble the large pipes of an old-fashioned organ.  They usually grow to height of 15 to 20 feet.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona.” The American Southwest – Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Wyoming. Slot Canyons & Travelogue. (accessed February 15, 2012).

This source spends the majority of its time discussing the various facilities located in and around the monument.  Along with facilities it also dives into the cacti which grow within the park boundaries as well as the state of the US-Mexican border.


Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. 108th Cong., 1st session, H.R. 1577. July 11, 2003.

This congressional measure sought out to designate the visitor center in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument as the ‘Kris Eggle Visitor Center’ in honor of the park ranger who was killed in the line of duty in August 2002. This measure goes on further to assure that the center promotes the public awareness of the risks taken each day by public land management law enforcement officers.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument: Description.” DesertUSA. (accessed February 8, 2012).

This is another source that comes from the website  This one however goes into much detail about the physical description of the park more so than previous DesertUSA sources.  It discusses exploration and settlement as well as political history and elevation.


“Organ Pipe National Monument.” Desert Invasion-U.S.  Accessed September 28, 201

This article gives a short overview of the park.  Topics that are covered are plant and animal life.  Which include; elf owls, kangaroo rats, bighorn sheep, jackrabbits and various snakes.  Plants include; pink owl clover, golden poppies, and blue lupines.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (DesertUSA).” Desert Biomes by DesertUSA. (accessed February 15, 2012).

This source is similar to a previous DesertUSA source above.  From this website you can gather information concerning the general description of the park to seasons and hours, rates and fees, the Kris Eggle visitor center, where to buy food and supplies along with rules, regulations and precautions.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.” DesertUSA. (accessed February 8, 2012).

This source covers general information about the park.  Information such as the seasons and hours the monument is open, as well as rates and fees.  This source also covers rules and regulations, as well as precautions one should take while using the monument.


“organ pipe cactus national monument – Google Scholar.” Google Scholar. (accessed February 8, 2012).

This source is a court record of a hearing between Tom Brown and The United States Department of the Interior.

“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument .” Hiker Central. (accessed February 8, 2012).

This source is very similar to other ones we have seen giving a very general overview of the monument and the surround areas such as Ajo.  This source however is aimed at the hiker.  It provides details that many hikers would find important.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument – History & Culture (U.S. National Park Service).” U.S. National Park Service – Experience Your America. (accessed February 8, 2012).

This source talks about the history and culture of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  It contains topics concerning the differences between a National Park and a National Monument as well as information about the founding of ORPI and its complex human history.


Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  “Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Overview,” National Park Service. (accessed February 8, 1012)

This article, as the title states, is a simple overview of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument and everything that the park entails.  It has many different sections ranging from flora and fauna to immigration and planning your visit to the monument.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument – Plan Your Visit (U.S. National Park Service).” U.S. National Park Service – Experience Your America. (accessed February 8, 2012).

This very short source is concerned with planning your very own trip to Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  Whether you plan on taking a day trip or spending a few weeks camping there are plenty of opportunities for fun.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (U.S National Park Service).” National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior.> (accessed February 8, 2012).

This is a great source, it has many different sections discussing many different topics.  You can choose from such topics as what to do while visiting the monument, as well as a section on nature and science.  There is also a great section concerning education at ORPI.

“Organ Pipe Cactus National Park Borderland Safety.” Hillclimb Media. (29 September 2010).

The purpose of this document is to give the visitor a very brief introduction into potential risks associated with visiting the park.  “The desert backcountry of the park is known for being a popular border section for illegal crossing attempts.  Most of the people trying to get into the country this way are not well equipped for traversing the desert, and request support from park visitors” (pg. 1).  The article goes on to recommend using good judgment when or if you help them, and to avoid picking up hitchhikers at all.


“Organ Pipe Cactus National Park Information.”  Organ Pipe Cactus National Park. (Sept 29, 2010).

The purpose of this document is to give the reader some general information about the park and surrounding areas.  Topics that are available to explore from this page are; borderland safety, camping and campgrounds, hiking and biking trails, hotels, jobs & volunteer positions, location, address and directions, lodges & lodging, park information, park map, pictures & photography, visitor centers, and weather.  To intrigue the reader, the article says, “come see huge cacti with a myriad of small animals nesting in holes, hike miles of trails through the sweet-smelling and beautiful backcountry landscape, take a scenic drive or bike ride, or relax in a peaceful sunny campground” (pg. 1).


“Organ Pipe Cactus NM, Arizona Travel Guide.” Go-Arizona. (accessed February 15, 2012).

This source provides us with vacation, recreation and tourism information.  Where to stay in Arizona while visiting the monument, along with where to stay when you are traveling in from other states.  It talks about the different recreation activities one can participate in within the park boundaries along with what one might expect to see upon visiting.


P., By Elora. “Sonoran Desert.” Blue Planet Biomes. Web. Sept. 2010. <;.

The purpose of this article is to inform the reader about the Sonoran desert. “The Sonoran Desert is located in North America and covers the southwestern parts of the state of Arizona, southeastern parts of the state of California in the United States and the state of Sonora in Mexico” (pg. 1).  The article goes on to explain the amount of plant life that grows in the desert depends heavily upon the amount of rain that falls in the rainy seasons.  While the Sonoran Desert receives less precipitation than the rest of the United States, it actually receives significantly more than other deserts in the world.

Parker, By Pamela. “Arizona Borderlands – The Many Faces of the Desert |” Outdoor Travel Guides & Adventure Travel Information | Web. Sept. 2010. <;.

The purpose of this article is to give travelers to the area a background on the land, plants and wildlife.  “From the “sky –islands” of the Chiricahua mountains to the eroded volcanic rock environment of the Puerto Blanco, Bates, Cipriano, and Ajo Mountains, the Sonoran desert landscape of Arizona near the Mexican border encompasses an incredible diversity of ecosystems” (pg. 1).  The article goes on to explain the plant and animal life you might see on a visit.  It also names and explains some popular hikes and appealing nature spots.  This article would be good to assist a writer describe the nature in OPCNM also those inquiring about the plant and animal life.


Patton, Fred, Chief Ranger. “May Border Incidents Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, AZ.” May 2004. The Morning Report. (28 September 2010).

This article is in the format of a journal entry, described the day to day incidents occurring in or around Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.  The following are two excerpts from the article. “May 10: The park’s dog team was summoned to the Lukeville port of entry to check on a suspicious vehicle.  The dog alerted on its gas tank, which led to the seizure of 56 pounds of marijuana and the driver’s arrest” (pg. 1).  The next excerpt says, “May 29: An attempt to stop a vehicle that had illegally crossed into the U.S. on Highway 85 led to a pursuit as the driver fled towards Mexico.  Speeds at times were over 110 mph.  Tire deflation devices were placed on the road, which succeeded in stopping the vehicle.  A foot pursuit ensued that culminated with the arrest of the driver and eight illegal aliens.  The driver will be charged with felony alien smuggling” (pg. 1).


Pearson G, Conner CW.  “The Quitobaquito desert pupfish, an endangered species within Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument: Historical significance and management challenges.” Natural Resources Journal 40 (Spring 2001):

This article explains the difficulties in protecting the desert pupfish, which is an Endangered species.  The only place the pupfish is found is in the largest body of water in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Quitobaquito springs and pond.  “The fish has been listed as endangered in 1986, along with identification of its critical habitat.  The cultural significance of the Quitobaquito area dates to appx. 11,000 B.P. (before present)” (pg. 1).  This article is great for the section on the pupfish for the website.  Especially because it has an in-depth analysis of the cultural impact of the springs in the region.  It explains why the fish is important but also why the environment it lives in needs just as much protection.


Peek. “Photo tour: U.S. Mexico Boarder.” U.S. Mexico Boarder. 2008.

This article shows 9 different pictures from 9 different areas along the borderlands.


Perry-Castaña Library Map Collection. “Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (Park Map) 1999,” University of Texas at Austin. (accessed September 29, 2010).

This source provides the user with a number of maps of Arizona.  Within this source there are two maps specifically focused on OPCNM.  The OPCNM map shows us things such as; Bates Mountains, Puerto Blanco Mountains, Victoria Mine, and the city of Lukeville.  It also shows the reader a number of roads through the park and popular hiking trails.  Overall it would be a good map to include on the website because it is a very detailed map.  When a visitor comes to the website they may hear a reference to a place in the park and this map can show them exactly where it is in the park.  Outside of our website this map would be useful to the average tourist visiting the park.


Plagens, Michael J. “Sonoran Desert Naturalist.” (29 September 2010).

This article gives the reader a detailed description of the Sonoran Desert.  First, it explains its geographic location and describes how diverse the habitat within the desert is.  Next, it explains to the reader exactly what a desert is.  Many people assume that a desert needs hot temperatures and a lack of water, but that is not always the case.  The Sonoran Desert is different than the typical desert because it has many different seasons with differing temperatures and it receives a decent amount of rainfall for a desert.  This article does a great job of explaining the animal and plant life, the climate of the desert and the cultural significance of the desert to the native people in the area.

—————————————————————————————————————————————— Madar, Ron “Mexico Parks Explained” (Sept, 29 2010)

“When is a national park a national park and a biosphere reserve a biosphere reserve?  There are some big differences among parks and reserves in Mexico, and it is important to review how Mexico classifies these protected areas” (pg. 1).  The purpose of this article is to answer this question and to describe the various protected areas on the Mexico side of the border.  Mexico has 93 protected areas, covering 11.7 million hectares, about 6% of their national territory.  There are 9 different types of protected areas in Mexico; biosphere reserves, special biosphere reserves, National Parks, Natural Monuments, National Marine Parks, Natural Resource Protected Areas which include Forestry Reserves, Flora and Fauna Protected Areas, Urban Parks and Ecological Conservation Zones.  This is a great source to describe the region south of the border and their methodology of protecting land.


Pomfret, John. “Fence Meets Wall of Skepticism; Critics Doubt a 700-Mile Barrier Would Stem Migrant Tide.” Washington Post, October 10, 2006.

Congress passed legislation to build a $2 billion fence along the U.S.-Mexican border, and critics say that the legislation does not take into account the widely varied geography at the border.  However, Congress did give the Bush administration authority to use this money for other means of controlling the border.  For example, vehicle barriers have proven effective in slowing drug and migrant smugglers in ORPI.


Roosevelt, Margot “Busted!” Time, August 4, 2003.,ip,url,cpid&custid=s4640792&db=aph&AN=10376180&site=ehost-live (accessed September 27, 2010).

This article deals with the problem the United States is facing with drugs on the border.  Unlike the typical borderlands drug story, Roosevelt describes how pot is being grown and harvested inside National Parks.  The Park Service rangers comb the forests looking for these growing operations.  Often when the Rangers stumble upon the operation, the people harvesting the drugs retaliate by shooting with AK-47’s.  Besides the obvious safety issue, these grow operations are harming the often fragile ecosystem of the National Parks.


Ryan Slattery, “Protecting the Parks Along the Border,.”  Washington Post, A21, April 26, 2004, http://www.latinamerican (accessed January 30, 2012).

The Arizona Border Control Initiative is the topic of controversy in this article as a portion of the plan is the Border Patrol’s request to use off-road motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles on known smuggling routes and footpaths within designated wilderness areas.  This will take a toll on the landscape and wildlife in the area.  But Border Patrol believes it is necessary due to the amount of drugs coming through these areas.  The article also explains  what the DHS hopes to enact with this new policy and also what Organ Pipe has done since the murder of Kris Eggle.

Schonewald-Cox, C. M., and J. W. Bayless. “The Boundary Model: A Geographical  Analysis of Design and Conservation of Nature Reserves.” Biological Conservation 38, no. 4, 1986: 305-322.

This journal article goes over how many natural habitats in the world are on the decline. It also goes over the idea of energy investment in relation to maintaining land. There is a large section involving segmentation, which is used to analyze localized differences in land ownership or use. The article ends with a practical use of the boundary model proposed earlier in the article.


Segee, Brian. “Security Without Walls: The Organ Pipe Experience.” Defenders of Wildlife. (accessed February 15, 2012).

In the article Brian Segee discusses the fragile state of Organ Pipe National Monument. He explains that the increase of border patrol and illegal immigration has caused the creation of fences along large amounts of the southern border of ORPI. While these fences have greatly reduced the amount of traffic illegally crossing the border, Segee argues that it is not worth it because of the dire consequences the natural habitat is facing. Endangered species such as the Sonoran Pronghorn have suffered greatly because the animal is not allowed to cross the border as it had been used to doing. The ORPI wildlife needs adequate access to cross-border migration in order to survive.


Seper, Jerry. “140 Agents Will Be Sent to Border: Security Chief Cites Crackdown on Terrorism, Smuggling, Illegal Immigration.” Washington Times, March 20, 2003.

In the article Jerry discusses 140 new federal agents that were sent to the border in hopes to crackdown on a recent number of illegal activities. He cites large amounts of violence involving the smuggling of illegal immigrants as well as large amounts of illegal drugs as being the reason for this crackdown. Recent deaths of border patrol agents were also cited as a big reason. This also included the tragic death of Kris Eggle.


Seper, Jerry. “Desert Beacons Lead to Illegals.” Washington Times, March 15, 2007.

In the article a newer form of life saving technology is being discussed. Throughout the Arizona desert special beacons have been constructed to help immigrants who have battled the extreme elements of traveling through the desert and have been left behind. These beacons are known throughout the border patrol as “panic poles.” When activated, the beacons emit a signal to border patrol agents who then come and find the distressed party. Since the implementation of the technology over 7,500 peoples have been helped in their times of need.

Silver, Robin. “Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Damaged by Border Wall Flood Obstruction.” No Border Wall. (accessed February 15, 2012).

This short blog post discusses the problems the border wall has on the environment in the ORPI region. The wall causing intense flooding in areas and has destroyed certain areas on the fragile wildlife. These floods are a frequent occurrence and the Department of Homeland Security (which monitors the border walls) has ignored these floods and their damage to the national park.


Smith, Joel. “The Road West.” (accessed February 15, 2012).

This blog post is a story about Joel and his son’s journey to Organ Pipe National Monument. At first Joel doesn’t believe his sixteen-year-old son will enjoy the trip in such a desert setting. As the day goes on the father and son continue to discover parts of the landscape they had never seen before. As the two leave the park Joel’s son thanks him for the unique experience in Organ Pipe.


Sommer II, Michael A. “Letter to the editor”. Audubon Magazine. (accessed September 30, 2010).

In this letter to the editor Dr. Michael Sommer is attempting to refute claims made by wildlife protectionists who argue that the building of a fence at the border will have grave ecological and environmental consequences. Sommer claims that when the consequences of illegal immigration are combined with the environmental damages caused by immigration, the possible ecological damage produced by the construction of a fence becomes justified.   He cites that plastic bottles, food wrappers and toilet paper cover large areas of Organ Pipe and large off-road vehicles are polluting streams and destroying species habitats. He further states that immigrants smoking cigarettes or building fires at night have caused wildfires that have destroyed 20 percent of riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River in Cochise County.


Timothy Egan, “Wanted: Border Hoppers. And Some Excitement, Too,”  The New York Times,  April 1, 2005.

This article discusses the Minuteman Project being conducted out of Tombstone, AZ. Created by 44 year old Chris Simcox, the Minuteman project deploys volunteers (most of which are armed) along the border to look for people crossing the border illegally. Once someone is spotted, the volunteers relay the information to law enforcement officers who then apprehend the suspects. This project has received opposition from both President Bush and President Fox of Mexico. People believe that those participating in the project have a “lynch mob” mentality, not to mention most of the volunteers have no background in law enforcement.


“The Tohono O’odham.”  Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights Initiative.    (Sept 29, 2010).

The Tohono O’Odham nation is the second largest reservation in the United States with a population of 25,000 and territory that encompasses south central Arizona as well as parts of Mexico.  The Tohono O’Odham peoples have lived in the desert for thousands of years, however by the mid 1800’s with the Gadsden Purchase and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo the current U.S. – Mexico border was established and the tribal lands of the Tohono were divided. While the Tohono O’Odham people were originally allowed to freely cross back and forth between the U.S. and Mexico, the recent tightening of the borders caused the construction of a barbed wire fence that inhibits the travel of the Tohono.  An open border is important for the Tohono tribe for a number of reasons including the preservation of traditional ceremonies as well as the ability for the Tohono people to travel to sacred sites.


“UNESCO – MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (accessed February 15, 2012).

This source is organized very well and has many different topics one can read about.  These topics range in subject from general description of the monument to the altitude and administrative authorities.  It even provided contact information in case the reader is interested in obtaining more information concerning the monument.


U.S. Department of the Interior. Interior and Homeland Security Collaborate on Border Protection, Resource Conservation Along US/Mexico Border, State News Service, March 13, 2010.

In this piece the topic of illegal immigration in relation to environmental conservation is discussed.  The author discusses how the Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is concerned about how illegal immigration affects the environment as well as the safety of the visitors and employees of this region.  Salazar is quoted saying, “At Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, we have seen that national security and environmental conservation are mutually supporting goals.  Deterring unlawful activity along the border is the best option for preventing damage to cultural and natural resources and minimizing risks to visitors and employees.”  Also, the steps to deter illegal immigration which have been taken along the border as well as in Organ Pipe are touched on.

U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service.  Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Final General Management Plan, Development Concept Plans, Environmental Impact Statement. Ajo, Arizona, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, 1997.

This source is the final draft of the General Management Plan that Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument uses to this day.  General management plans are instituted at ever national park and monument across the country.  These documents layout how each individual unit of the NPS needs to be run and managed from resource use and conservation to tourism.


U.S. Department of the Interior. Office of the Secretary. Interior and Homeland Security Collaborate on Border Protection, Resource Conservation along US/Mexico Border. Ajo, Arizona, 2010.

This press release reports on the increased interaction between the Department of the Interior and the Department of Homeland Security, which both have a common interest of controlling illegal immigration along the US/Mexico border, for the sake of both conservation and national security. The two agencies have proposed a project to create a more “virtual fence”, in the form of less physical towers and more subtle surveillance measures, in order to better regulate the border and minimize environmental impact.


Vanderpool, Tim. “Amid cactuses, a park’s war on smuggling.” Christian Science Monitor 19 June 2001: Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.

Increased immigration and drug trafficking into Organ Pipe National Monument has been turning the park into the equivalent of a war zone. This increased traffic has forced park rangers to manage and be on the lookout for drug smugglers as well as smuggling routes.  Recent budget cuts to the park combined with a severe shortage of law enforcement has caused Organ Pipe to be labeled the most dangerous national park in America.  Further projected budget cuts, compounded by the fact that many park rangers are nearing retirement age, has many people in fear of a looming crisis.


Vanderpool, Tim. “Parks Under Siege.” National Parks, November 1, 2002.

This article discusses the implications of persistent illegal crossing of drugs and people over the border, which put ORPI park workers and visitors at risk and severely damage the delicate environment. Vanderpool also acknowledges the park’s understaffing, despite its being named “the most dangerous park” to be a ranger in the US. Reports on governmental action to alleviate these problems are discussed and address local, congressional, and presidential attitudes toward increased funding for national park security.

Warren, Peter L. Vegetation of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Tucson, Ariz.: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Arizona , 1981.

This technical report created by the University of Arizona highlights the location, geography, physiology, geology and most importantly the vegetation within Organ Pipe National Monument. This report further contains in depth analysis of all the major plant species located in Organ Pipe including its distribution, range, characteristics, and associated species.  Along with an in-depth analysis of each plant species this report also contains a chronological timeline of the park dating back from 9000 B.C. up to 1973.


The Wilderness Society. “Creating National Monuments: Learn About the Special Things to Know Before You Come.” National Park Service U.S Department of the Interior. (Sept 27, 2010).

This article highlights the history and importance of the 1906 Antiquities Act and how it has come to be an essential tool for the preservation of public lands. This article goes on further to state that 15 presidents from 1906 to 2009 have used the Antiquities Act to declare over 124 national monuments across the United States. This act has played a key role not just in the creation of national monuments but also in the expansion of our National Park System.


Wigglesworth, Zeke. “Arizona’s Giant Desert Plants Are Stars of Its Deserted Parks.” The Toronto Star, December 2, 1995, Saturday second editon.

This newspaper article describes what can be seen and enjoyed on a trip to Organ Pipe National Park. It advocates for the area’s unique beauty and also suggests the best times of year to visit, as well as the best trails to take according to a variety of visitor’s potential preferences.


Yetman, David. The Organ Pipe Cactus. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2006.

This book is a short history of the organ pipe cactus that discusses how the species has been distributed over time and its long-standing cultural significance and varied uses to indigenous peoples in the Sonoran Desert. Yetman discusses certain distinctions between indigenous communities and their relation to the plant and also various qualities of the plant itself, such as unique medicinal properties.